A new study shows that Kineret (anakinra), a medication approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is effective in stopping the progression of organ damage in people with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). This rare and debilitating genetic disorder causes persistent inflammation and ongoing tissue damage. The research was performed by scientists at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), part of the National Institutes of Health. NOMID affects numerous organs and body systems, including the skin, joints, eyes, and central nervous system. The first sign of the disease is often a rash that develops within the first weeks of life. Other problems, including fever, meningitis, joint damage, vision and hearing loss, and mental retardation, can follow. Kineret, one of a relatively new class of drugs known as biologic response modifiers or biologics, blocks the activity of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a protein made by cells of the immune system. IL-1 is overproduced in NOMID and a number of other diseases, leading to damaging inflammation. Previous work by the same NIAMS group showed that blocking IL-1 was effective in relieving symptoms of NOMID. However, this is the first study to show that Kineret works over the long-term and, at higher doses, can also control damage that often results in vision and hearing loss, and brain lesions. “Inflammation prolonged over many years will eventually cause irreversible damage and loss of function,” said lead author Dr. Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky of the NIAMS Translational Autoinflammatory Disease Section. For example, inflammation of the cochlea — a tiny structure of the inner ear — was found to be responsible for hearing loss in people with NOMID.
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