A scorpion native to Eastern Mexico may have more than just toxin in its sting. Researchers at Stanford University and in Mexico have found that the venom also contains two color-changing compounds that could help fight bacterial infections. The team not only isolated the compounds in the scorpion's venom, but also synthesized them in the lab and verified that the lab-made versions killed staphylococcus and drug-resistant tuberculosis bacteria in tissue samples and in mice. The findings, published online on June 10, 2019 in PNAS, highlight the potential pharmacological treasures awaiting discovery in the toxins of scorpions, snakes, snails, and other poisonous creatures. The PNAS article is titled “1,4-Benzoquinone Antimicrobial Agents Against Staphylococcus Aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Derived from Scorpion Venom.” "By volume, scorpion venom is one of the most precious materials in the world. It would costs $39 million to produce a gallon of it," said study senior author Richard Zare (https://web.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/about.html), PhD, who led the Stanford group. "If you depended only on scorpions to produce it, nobody could afford it, so it's important to identify what the critical ingredients are and be able to synthesize them." Dr. Zare worked with his colleagues in Mexico, including Lourival Possani, PhD, a Professor of Molecular Medicine at the National University of Mexico, whose students caught specimens of the scorpion Diplocentrus melici for study. "The collection of this species of scorpion is difficult because during the winter and dry seasons, the scorpion is buried," Dr. Possani said. "We can only find it in the rainy season." For the past 45 years, Dr. Possani has focused on identifying compounds with pharmacological potential in scorpion venom.
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