Dr. Christopher Hadad, professor of chemistry at The Ohio State University (OSU), is leveraging Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) resources to help develop a more effective antidote to lethal chemicals called organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. “This project is a combination of synthetic and computational organic chemistry conducted through OSC at Ohio State, and biochemical studies conducted by colleagues at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland,” said Dr. Hadad. OP nerve agents inhibit the ability of an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to turn off the messages being delivered by acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter, to activate various muscles, glands and organs throughout the body. After exposure to OP agents, AChE undergoes a series of reactions, culminating in an “aging” process that inactivates AChE from performing its critical biological function. Without the application of an effective antidote, neurosynaptic communication continues unabated, resulting in uncontrolled secretions from the mouth, eyes and nose, as well as severe muscle spasms, which, if untreated, result in death. Conventional antidotes to OP nerve agents block the activity of the nerve agent by introducing oxime compounds, which have been the focus of a number of studies. These compounds attach to the phosphorus atom of the nerve agent, after the OP is bound to AChE, and then split it away from the AChE enzyme, allowing the AChE to engage with receptors and finally relax the tissues. However, in some cases, the combined nerve agent/AChE molecule undergo a process called aging, in which groups of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms called alkyl groups are removed from the molecule and a phosphonate residue is left behind in the AChE active site.
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