A new technique to produce cells with insulin-secretion capabilities has been developed, according to research presented at the 54th Annual European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Meeting in Barcelona, Spain (October 1-3, 2015). The technique could be further developed to be used in the transplantation for patients with type 1 diabetes. It is well established that, typically, in type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys beta cells in the pancreas. These unique cells are responsible for producing, storing, and secreting insulin - the hormone that regulates levels of glucose in the blood. Currently one of the most promising therapies in the fight against diabetes is the replacement of beta cells. In the replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes, researchers from Université Catholique de Louvain in Belgium have previously shown that human pancreatic duct-derived cells (HDDCs) are an attractive source of cells that may potentially be reprogrammed to behave like beta cells. The HDDCs are found in the adult pancreas and are progenitor cells - cells that have a tendency and the capacity to differentiate into specific types of other cells. In this study, the research group reprogrammed HDDCs to behave like beta cells and secrete insulin within the pancreas, whilst responding to glucose. The researchers used messenger RNA (mRNA) for a specific transcription factor - a protein that controls which genes are turned off or on in the genome - called MafA (image). The mRNA codes for the production of the MafA protein that binds to nuclear DNA in order to orchestrate the changes in cellular functions. This technique allowed the researchers to avoid any potential genetic modification of the target cells.
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