In a review article published online on April 28, 2020, scientists from Singapore provide an overview of the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The researchers describe the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the immune system and the subsequent contribution of dysfunctional immune responses to disease progression. The open-access article was published online on April 28, 2020 in Nature Reviews Immunology and is titled “The Trinity of COVID-19: Immunity, Inflammation, and Intervention” (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-020-0311-8). The lead author is Matthew Zirui Tay, PhD, of the Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, Singapore; and the senior author is Lisa F. P. Ng (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_Ng), PhD, of the same organization, and also with affiliations at the Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; and at the Institute of Infection, Veterinary & Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. At the end of their review, the authors conclude that “Controlling the inflammatory response may be as important as targeting the virus. Therapies inhibiting viral infection and regulation of dysfunctional immune responses may synergize to block pathologies at multiple steps. At the same time, the association between immune dysfunction and outcome of disease severity in patients with COVID-19 should serve as a note of caution in vaccine development and evaluation. Further studies of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 are necessary, including a detailed investigation of the determinants of healthy versus dysfunctional outcomes.
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