Muscles once thought “uniquely human” have been discovered in several ape species, challenging long-held theories on the origin and evolution of human soft tissues. The findings question the anthropocentric view that certain muscles evolved for the sole purpose of providing special adaptations for human traits, such as walking on two legs, tool use, vocal communication, and facial expressions. Published on April26, 2018 in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, the study highlights that thorough knowledge of ape anatomy is necessary for a better understanding of human evolution. The article is titled “First Detailed Anatomical Study of Bonobos Reveals Intra-Specific Variations and Exposes Just-So Stories of Human Evolution, Bipedalism, and Tool Use.” "This study contradicts key dogmas about human evolution and our distinct place on the 'ladder of nature,'" says Rui Diogo, PhD, an Associate Professor in the Department of Anatomy at Howard University in Washington, DC. "Our detailed analysis shows that, in fact, every muscle that has long-been accepted as 'uniquely human' and providing 'crucial singular functional adaptations' for our bipedalism, tool use, and vocal and facial communications is actually present in the same or similar form in bonobos and other apes, such as common chimpanzees and gorillas." Long-standing evolutionary theories are largely based on the bone structures of prehistoric specimens -- and, according to Dr. Diogo, also on the idea that humans are necessarily more special and complex than other animals. These theories suggest that certain muscles evolved in humans only, giving us our unique physical characteristics.
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