Genetics may play a role in how people's taste receptors send signals, leading to a wide spectrum of taste preferences, according to Penn State food scientists. These varied, genetically influenced responses may mean that food and drink companies will need a range of artificial sweeteners to accommodate different consumer tastes. "Genetic differences lead to differences in how people respond to tastes of foods," said Dr. John Hayes, assistant professor, food science, and director of the sensory evaluation center at Penn State. Based on the participants' genetic profile, researchers were able to explain the reactions of subjects in a taste test when they sampled Acesulfame-K -- Ace K -- in the laboratory. Ace K is a man-made non-nutritive sweetener commonly found in carbonated soft drinks and other products. Non-nutritive sweeteners are sweeteners with minimal or no calories. While some people find Ace K sweet, others find it both bitter and sweet. The researchers, who reported their findings online on April 18, 2013 in the journal, Chemical Senses, said that variants of two bitter taste receptor genes -- TAS2R9 and TAS2R31 -- were able to explain some of the differences in Ace K's bitterness. These two taste receptor genes work independently, but they can combine to form a range of responses, said Alissa Allen, a doctoral student in food science, who worked with Dr. Hayes. Humans have 25 bitter-taste receptors and one sweet receptor that act like locks on gates. When molecules fit certain receptors like keys, a signal is sent to the brain, which interprets these signals as tastes -- some pleasant and some not so pleasant, Allen said. In another study published in July 2013 in the journal Chemosensory Perception, Allen had 122 participants taste two stevia extracts, RebA -- Rebaudioside A -- and RebD -- Rebaudioside D.
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