The 2016 Lasker Awards, often a prelude to the Nobel Prize, have been announced. The 2016 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award was presented to William T. Kaelin, Jr., Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza for “their discovery of the pathway by which cells from humans and most animals sense and adapt to changes in oxygen availability—a process essential for survival;” the 2016 Lasker-Debakey Clinical Medical Research Award was given to Ralf F.W. Barteschlager, Charles M. Rice, and Michael J. Sofia for “their development of a system to study the replication of the virus that causes hepatitis C and for use of this system to revolutionize the treatment of this chronic, often lethal disease;" and the 2016 Lasker-Koshland Achievement Award in Medical Science was presented to Bruce M. Alberts for “fundamental discoveries in DNA replication and protein biochemistry; for visionary leadership in directing national and international scientific organizations to better people’s lives; and for passionate dedication to improving education in science and mathematics.” The 2016 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors three physician-scientists for their discovery of the pathway by which cells from human and most animals sense and adapt to changes in oxygen availability, a process that is essential for survival. Scientists had long appreciated that the success of today’s dominant life forms hinges on oxygen, yet little was known about their responses to it. William G. Kaelin, Jr. (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Harvard Medical School), Peter J. Ratcliffe (University of Oxford/Francis Crick Institute), and Gregg L.
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