IV-Delivered Healing Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Specifically Target Healing M2-Type Macrophages in a Rat Model Spinal Cord Injury

Scientists at the Yale University School of Medicine have shown that, in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI), intravenously delivered exosomes from bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) rapidly associate specifically with M2-type healing macrophages at the site of the SCI, but not in the uninjured spinal cord. The researchers believe that their findings support the idea that such extracellular vesicles, released by MSCs, may mediate at least some of the therapeutic healing effects of IV MSC administration. The new work follows on a 2015 study (in Experimental Neurology), by members of the Yale group, that showed that IV infusion of bone marrow-derived MSCs improved functional and anatomical recovery after contusive SCI in the non-immunosuppressed rat, although the MSCs themselves were not detected at the spinal cord injury (SCI) site (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014488615000679). The new work was published on January 2, 2018 in PLOS ONE. The open-access article is titled “Intravenously Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Target M2-Type Macrophages in the Injured Spinal Cord.” The authors also reported, in their new study, that the MSC exosomes were also detected in the spleen, which was notably reduced in weight in the rats with SCI. The researchers noted that further work is need to needed to determine whether IV exosomes fully replicate the therapeutic actions of MSCs on SCI recovery, as well as to elucidate the possible role of the spleen in SCI recovery. The authors of this work are Karen L. Lankford, Edgar J. Arroyo, Katarzyna Nazimek, Krysztof Bryniarski, Philip W. Askenase, and Jeffrey D. Kocsis, all affiliated with the Yale University School of Medicine.
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