A finding from University of Alberta (U of A) researchers in Canada is shining new light on the role fibrinogen has in regulating a natural defense mechanism in the body. The discovery is hoped to contribute to improved diagnosis and treatments for patients in a variety of diseases ranging from inflammation, to heart failure, to cancer. Fibrinogen (image) is a well-known protein that is essential for wound healing and blood clotting in the body. But a study published online on March 13, 2019 in Scientific Reports shows it is also a natural inhibitor of an enzyme named MMP2 that is important for normal organ development and repair. The open-access article is titled” Identification of Fibrinogen As a Natural Inhibitor of MMP-2.” MMP2 is typically found in increased levels in the blood in disease conditions. The researchers believe a vital function of fibrinogen is to allow or disallow the MMP2 enzyme to carry out its normal functions. However, high levels of fibrinogen may excessively inhibit MMP2, which could result in arthritic and cardiac disorders similar to those seen in patients with MMP2 gene deficiency. "Whenever there's an infection or there's an injury, fibrinogen can go up by tenfold in the blood. So, at that concentration it would excessively inhibit MMP2," said Hassan Sarker, a PhD candidate at the U of A and study lead author. "Binding of fibrinogen in the circulation to MMP2 enzymes prevents them from docking to target tissues," added Carlos Fernandez-Patron, PhD, a Professor of Biochemistry at the U of A, who directed this research. "It affects their activity and we don't know exactly whether that results in a beneficial or deleterious effect. It's something we need to investigate." The finding opens a new window into the inner workings of the MMP family of enzymes.
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