A nanotechnology treatment derived from bone marrow stem cells has reversed multiple sclerosis symptoms in mice and could eventually be used to help humans, according to a new study led by University of California, Irvine (UCI) researchers. "Until now, stem cell therapies for autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases have produced mixed results in clinical trials, partly because we don't know how the treatments work," said corresponding author Weian Zhao (photo), PhD, an Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Biomedical Engineering who is affiliated with the Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center. "This study helps unravel that mystery and paves the way for testing with human patients." In past experiments, intravenously injected stem cells - taken from bone marrow and activated with interferon gamma, an immune system protein - often became trapped in filter organs before reaching their target. For this study, published online on May 22, 2019 in ACS Nano, researchers avoided that problem by extracting nano-sized particles called exosomes from the stem cells and injecting them into rodents with MS. The ACS Nano article is titled “Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes As Nanotherapeutics for Autoimmune and Neurodegenerative Disorders.” Loaded with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective RNA and protein molecules, the exosomes were able to slip through the blood-spinal cord barrier. In addition to rejuvenating lost motor skills and decreasing nerve damage caused by MS, the exosome contents normalized the subjects' immune systems, something conventional drugs can't do, said study co-lead author Reza Mohammadi, a UCI doctoral candidate in materials science & engineering.
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