Researchers have long known that cells in the human body communicate with one another. Now a team of scientists at the University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center is hacking into this communication network to learn how fat cells talk with other cells and tissues in the body. Dr. Philipp Scherer, a metabolism expert and Director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern, is excited about the new findings because they will allow researchers to test new ideas and re-examine old ones. The study, published online on October 4, 2018 in Cell, shows that fat cells communicate with endothelial cells of the blood vessels that course through fat tissue, and potentially with other organs, by secreted packages of information (extracellular vesicles or EVs, often called exosomes). This communication between cells was demonstrated in a number of new mouse models that researchers created. The title of the new article is “An Endothelial-to-Adipocyte Extracellular Vesicle Axis Governed by Metabolic State.” These findings represent a new way of thinking for researchers who study diabetes, obesity, and metabolism. They open an entirely new door to our understanding of how tissues communicate,” said Dr. Clair Crewe, a postdoctoral researcher in the Touchstone Diabetes Center and first author of the study. “Once we understand the communication process, we can potentially shape it to either enhance or reduce the signaling effect.” The study identified a type of vesicle, a membrane-enclosed sphere, released by fat and other cells. Dr. Scherer compares them to the chocolate surrounding a bonbon. The “filling” includes lipids, signaling molecules, and proteins. The timing of their release is regulated by cycles of fasting and feeding. These vesicles travel throughout the body.
Login Or Register To Read Full Story