Evolution of Highly Toxic Box Jellyfish

With thousands of stinging cells that can emit deadly venom from tentacles that can reach ten feet in length, the fifty or so species of box jellyfish have long been of interest to scientists and to the public. Yet little has been known about the evolution of this early branch in the animal tree of life. An international team of researchers has now largely unraveled the evolutionary relationships among the various species of box jellyfish, thereby providing insight into the evolution of their toxicity. “By determining the relationships among the different box jellyfish, some of which are capable of killing a healthy human, this study can help in the future development of antivenoms and treatments for their stings,” said Dr. Allen Collins, a specialist in Cnidaria, the phylum of animals that includes box jellyfish, and senior author of the report. “Researchers will now be able to make more informed choices about organisms for future venom studies, and make predictions on which species are likely to be of public health concern in addition to the known culprits.” Box jellies--also called sea wasps, stingers, or fire jellies--live primarily in warm coastal waters around the world. They are particularly well known in Australia, the Philippines and the rest of Southeast Asia, but they also occur in Hawaii and in waters off the United States Gulf and East Coasts. Their toxicity varies among species and ranges from being completely harmless to humans to causing death within minutes after a sting. Beyond their toxicity, box jellyfish have other interesting characteristics. Some species, for instance, have as many as 24 eyes, capable of sensing light and forming an image of their surroundings.
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