From the several pandemics generally called 'pestilences,' three are historically recognized as due to plague, but only for the third pandemic of the 19th-21st centuries AD were there microbiological evidences that the causing agent was the bacterium Yersinia pestis. "For a long time scholars from different disciplines have intensively discussed about the actual etiological agents of the past pandemics. Only ancient DNA analyses carried out on skeletal remains of plague victims could finally conclude the debate," said Dr. Barbara Bramanti of the Palaeogenetics Group at the Institute of Anthropology at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany. About two years ago, she headed the international team which demonstrated beyond any doubt that Y. pestis also caused the second pandemic of the 14th-17th centuries including the Black Death, the infamous epidemic that ravaged Europe from 1346-1351. Dr. Bramanti and her Mainz colleague Dr. Stephanie Hänsch have now cooperated with the University of Munich, the German Bundeswehr, and international scholars to solve the debate as to whether Y. pestis also caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th-8th centuries AD. The results of ancient DNA analyses carried out remains in the early medieval cemetery of Aschheim in Bavaria were published online on May 2, 2103 in PLOS Pathogens. These results confirmed unambiguously that Y. pestis was indeed the causing agent of the first pandemic, in contrast to what has been postulated by other scientists recently. This revolutionary result is supported by the analysis of the genotype of the ancient strain which provides information about the phylogeny and the place of origin of this plague.
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