Scientists have isolated cancer stem cells that lead to the growth of Wilms' tumors, a type of cancer typically found in the kidneys of young children. The researchers have used these cancer stem cells to test a new therapeutic approach that one day might be used to treat some of the more aggressive types of this disease. The results were published online on December 13, 2012 in EMBO Molecular Medicine. "In earlier studies, cancer stem cells were isolated from adult cancers of the breast, pancreas, and brain, but so far much less is known about stem cells in pediatric cancers," remarked Professor Benjamin Dekel, head of the Pediatric Stem Cell Research Institute and a senior physician at the Sheba Medical Center and the Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel. "Cancer stem cells contain the complete genetic machinery necessary to start, sustain, and propagate tumour growth and they are often referred to as cancer-initiating cells. As such, they not only represent a useful system to study cancer development, but they also serve as a way to study new drug targets and potential treatments designed to stop the growth and spread of different types of cancer." He added: "We have demonstrated for the first time the presence of cancer stem cells in a type of tumor that is often found in the kidneys of young children." Wilms' tumors are the most prevalent type of tumor found in the kidneys of children. While many patients respond well if the tumors are removed early by surgery and if patients are given chemotherapy, recurrences may occur and the cancer can spread to other tissues increasing the risks to the health of the patient. Conventional chemotherapy is toxic to all cells in the body and if given to children may lead to the development of secondary cancers when they become adults.
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