A study published in the September 18, 2013 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience points, for the first time, to the gene NTRK3 (neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3) (also known as trkC) as a factor in susceptibility to the disease. The researchers define the specific mechanism for the formation of fear memories which will help in the development of new pharmacological and cognitive treatments. An estimated five out of every 100 people in Spain suffer from panic disorder, one of the diseases included within the anxiety disorders, and those affected experience frequent and sudden attacks of fear that may influence their everyday lives, sometimes even rendering them incapable of things like going to the shops, driving the car, or holding down a job. It was known that this disease had a neurobiological and genetic basis and for some time the search had been on to discover which genes were involved in its development, with certain genes being implicated without their physiopathological contribution being understood. Now, for the first time, researchers from the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) have revealed that the gene NTRK3, responsible for encoding a protein essential for the formation of the brain, the survival of neurones and establishing connections between them, is a factor in genetic susceptibility to panic disorder. “We have observed that deregulation of NTRK3 produces changes in brain development that lead to malfunctions in the fear-related memory system,” explains Dr. Mara Dierssen, head of the Cellular and Systems Neurobiology group at the CRG.
A multidisciplinary team of scientists from Spanish universities and research centers, including the University of Valencia, has managed to design small synthetic molecules capable of joining to the genetic material of the AIDS virus and blocking its replication. This achievement has been made for the first time in the world by a group of researcher led by Dr. José Gallego from Universidad Católica de Valencia “San Vicente Mártir.” The University of Valencia, the Príncipe Felipe Research Centre, and the Instituto de Salud Carlos III have participated. The work was published November 25, 2013 by Angewandte Chemie International Edition, one of the most prestigious scientific journals in the world in the area of chemistry. The newly designed synthetic molecules inhibit the output of genetic material of the virus from the infected cell nucleus to the cytoplasm, thus the virus replication is blocked and avoids the infection of other cells. The genetic material of the AIDS virus, or HIV-1, is formed by ribonucleic acid (RNA), and encodes several proteins that allow it to penetrate the human cells and reproduce within them. The new virus inhibitors, called terphenyls, developed by this group of scientists, were designed by computer to reproduce the interactions of one of the proteins encoded by the virus, the viral protein Rev. In this way, the terphenyls join Rev’s receptor in the viral RNA, preventing the interaction between the protein and its RNA receptor. This interaction is necessary for the virus genetic material to leave the infected cell nucleus and, thus, it is essential for the survival of HIV-1. The fact that the terphenyls block the virus genetic material output of the cell prevents the infection of other cells.
Scientists have long suspected that corvids – the family of birds including ravens, crows, and magpies – are highly intelligent. Now, Tübingen neurobiologists Dr. Lena Veit and Professor Andreas Nieder have demonstrated how the brains of crows produce intelligent behavior when the birds have to make strategic decisions. Their results are published in the latest edition of Nature Communications. Crows are no bird-brains. Behavioral biologists have even called them “feathered primates” because the birds make and use tools, are able to remember large numbers of feeding sites, and plan their social behavior according to what other members of their group do. This high level of intelligence might seem surprising because birds’ brains are constructed in a fundamentally different way from those of mammals, including primates – which are usually used to investigate these behaviors. The Tübingen researchers are the first to investigate the brain physiology of crows’ intelligent behavior. They trained crows to carry out memory tests on a computer. The crows were shown an image and had to remember it. Shortly afterwards, they had to select one of two test images on a touchscreen with their beaks based on a switching behavioral rules. One of the test images was identical to the first image, the other different. Sometimes the rule of the game was to select the same image, and sometimes it was to select the different one. The crows were able to carry out both tasks and to switch between them as appropriate. That demonstrates a high level of concentration and mental flexibility which few animal species can manage – and which is an effort even for humans. The crows were quickly able to carry out these tasks even when given new sets of images.
Research jointly conducted by investigators at Institut Gustave Roussy, Inserm, Institut Pasteur and the INRA (French National Agronomic Research Institute) has led to a rather surprising discovery on the manner in which cancer chemotherapy treatments act more effectively with the help of the intestinal flora (also known as the intestinal microbiota). Indeed, the researchers have just shown that the efficacy of one of the molecules most often used in chemotherapy relies to an extent on its capacity to mobilize certain bacteria from the intestinal flora toward the bloodstream and lymph nodes. Once inside the lymph nodes, these bacteria stimulate fresh immune defenses which then enhance the body’s ability to fight the malignant tumor. Results of this work were published in the November 22, 2013 issue of Science. The intestinal microbiota is made up of 100,000 billion bacteria. It is a genuine organ, because the bacterial species that comprise it carry out functions crucial to our health, such as the elimination of substances that are foreign to the body (and potentially toxic), or keeping the pathogens that contaminate us at bay. They also ensure the degradation of ingested food, for better intestinal absorption and optimal metabolism. These millions of bacteria colonize the intestine from birth, and play a key role in the maturation of the immune defenses. However, the bacterial species that make up the intestinal microbiota vary from one individual to another, and the presence or absence of one or another bacterial species seems to influence the occurrence of some diseases, or, conversely, may protect us.
In the developing world, Cryptosporidium parvum has long been the scourge of freshwater. A decade ago, it announced its presence in the United States, infecting over 400,000 people – the largest waterborne-disease outbreak in the county’s history. Its rapid ability to spread, combined with an incredible resilience to water decontamination techniques, such as chlorination, led the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United Sates to add C. parvum to its list of public bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no reliable treatments for cryptosporidiosis, the disease caused by C. parvum, but that may be about to change with the identification of a target molecule by investigators at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC). The findings of this study were published online on September 23, 2013 in the Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (AAC) journal. “In the young, the elderly, and immunocompromised people such as people infected with HIV/AIDS, C. parvum is a very dangerous pathogen. Cryptosporidiosis is potentially life-threatening and can result in diarrhea, malnutrition, dehydration, and weight loss,” says first author of the study, Dr. Momar Ndao, Director of the National Reference Centre of Parasitology (NRCP) at the MUHC and an Assistant Professor of the Departments of Medicine, Immunology, and Parasitology (Division of Infectious Diseases) at McGill University. The oocysts of C. parvum, which are shed during the infectious stage, are protected by a thick wall that allows them to survive for long periods outside the body as they spread to a new host. C. parvum is a microscopic parasite that lives in the intestinal tract of humans and many other mammals.
How is the bond between people in love maintained? Scientists at the Bonn University Medical Center have discovered a biological mechanism that could explain the attraction between loving couples: if oxytocin is administered to men and if they are shown pictures of their partner, the bonding hormone stimulates the reward center in the brain, increasing the attractiveness of the partner, and strengthening monogamy. The results were published online on November 25, 2013 in PNAS. Monogamy is not very widespread among mammals; human beings represent an exception. Comparatively many couples of the species Homo sapiens have no other partners in a love relationship. For a long time, science has therefore been trying to discover the unknown forces that cause loving couples to be faithful. “An important role in partner bonding is played by the hormone oxytocin, which is secreted in the brain,” says Professor Dr. René Hurlemann, Executive Senior Physician at the Inpatient and Outpatient Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Bonn University Medical Center. A team of scientists at the University of Bonn under the direction of Professor Hurlemann and with participation by researchers at the Ruhr University of Bochum and the University of Chengdu (China) examined the effect of the “bonding hormone” more precisely. The researchers showed pictures of their female partners to a total of 40 heterosexual men who were in a permanent relationship – and pictures of other women for comparison. First a dose of oxytocin was administered to the subjects in a nasal spray; and then a placebo at a later date. Furthermore, the scientists also studied the brain activity of the subjects with the help of functional magnetic resonance tomography.
Mexico is one of the top five bee-producing countries worldwide and the second in exportation. However, the beekeepers can see their production being affected by the attack of a parasite, the Varroa acari, a type of mite, which feeds on hemolymph of the bees. Currently, the control methods employed are of synthetic origin, but face the main problem of generating resistance in the acari, which reduces the control’s effectiveness; in addition, is not rare to find traces of it in the bee wax and honey. A press release issued November 25, 2013, said that research by the National Institute of Forest, Agricultural, and Livestock Research (INIFAP), indicated that not treating the colonies infested by Varroa acari can lead to a 65 per cent loss in production in comparison to colonies where the acari is controlled. Seeing this disparity, researchers from the INIFAP talked to the beekeepers about organic control of the pest employing powdered thymol, which is easy to employ and cheaper. In addition, the acari doesn’t develop resistance to it nor does it generate residue on honey or bee wax if generated properly. Dr. Miguel Arechavaleta Velasco, head of research at the INIFAP, explains that Varroa is an acari that feeds on bee hemolymph; like a tick, it produces a disease in the colony called varroasis that can kill entire hives, being the main problem that beekeepers face worldwide. “Among the organic products that we have studied, thymol has given encouraging results; it’s an essential oil obtain from thyme. There are commercial thymol-based products for Varroa control, but we developed a different application form, resulting in easier and cheaper (administration by) the beekeeper.” The proposed method consists in using powdered thymol mixed with powdered sugar.
Research has suggested that a particular gene in the brain’s reward system contributes to overeating and obesity in adults. This same variant (the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor 4 gene—DRD4) has now been linked to childhood obesity and tasty food choices, particularly for girls, according to a new study by Dr. Patricia Silveira and Professor Michael Meaney of McGill University and Dr. Robert Levitan of the University of Toronto. Contrary to “blaming” obese individuals for making poor food choices, Dr. Meaney and his team suggest that obesity lies at the interface of three factors: genetic predispositions, environmental stress, and emotional well-being. These findings, published in the February 2014 issue of the journal, Appetite, shed light on why some children may be predisposed to obesity, and could mark a critical step towards prevention and treatment. “In broad terms, we are finding that obesity is a product of genetics, early development, and circumstance”, says Dr. Meaney, who is also Associate Director of the Douglas Mental Health University Institute Research Centre. The work is part of the MAVAN (Maternal Adversity Vulnerability & Neurodevelopment) project, headed by Dr. Meaney and Dr. Hélène Gaudreau, Project Coordinator. Their team studied pregnant women, some of whom suffered from depression or lived in poverty, and followed their children from birth until the age of ten. For the study, researchers tested 150 four-year old MAVAN children by administering a snack test meal. The children were faced with healthy and non-healthy food choices. Mothers also completed a questionnaire to address their child’s normal food consumption and preferences.
One of the smallest parts of the brain is getting a second look after new research suggests it plays a crucial role in decision-making. A University of British Columbia (UBC) study published online on November 24, 2013 in Nature Neuroscience says the lateral habenula, a region of the brain linked to depression and avoidance behaviors, has been largely misunderstood and may be integral in cost-benefit decisions. “These findings clarify the brain processes involved in the important decisions that we make on a daily basis, from choosing between job offers to deciding which house or car to buy,” says Professor Stan Floresco of UBC’s Deptartment of Psychology and Brain Research Centre (BRC). “It also suggests that the scientific community has misunderstood the true functioning of this mysterious, but important, region of the brain.” In the study, scientists trained lab rats to choose between a consistent small reward (one food pellet) or a potentially larger reward (four food pellets) that appeared sporadically. Like humans, the rats tended to choose larger rewards when costs—in this case, the amount of time they had to wait before receiving food–were low and preferred smaller rewards when such risks were higher. Previous studies suggest that turning off the lateral habenula would cause rats to choose the larger, riskier reward more often, but that was not the case. Instead, the rats selected either option at random, no longer showing the ability to choose the best option for them. The findings have important implications for depression treatment. “Deep brain stimulation – which is thought to inactivate the lateral habenula — has been reported to improve depressive symptoms in humans,” Dr. Floresco says. “But our findings suggest these improvements may not be because patients feel happier.
A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)-led research team has identified an immune cell protein that is critical to setting off the body’s initial response against viral infection. The report that will be published in an upcoming issue of Nature Immunology and is receiving early online release describes finding that a protein called GEF-H1 is essential to the ability of macrophages – major contributors to the innate immune system – to respond to viral infections like influenza. “The detection of viral genetic material inside an infected cell is critical to initiating the responses that signal the immune system to fight an infection and prevent its spread throughout the body,” says Hans-Christian Reinecker, M.D., of the Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the MGH Gastrointestinal Unit, senior author of the report. “Our findings indicate that GEF-H1 may control immune responses against a wide variety of RNA and DNA viruses that pose a threat to human health.” The body’s first line of defense against infection, the innate immune system, rapidly responds to invading pathogens by mobilizing white blood cells, chemical factors called cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides. When viruses invade cells, they often move towards the nucleus in order to replicate and sometimes to integrate their own genetic material into that of the host cell, traveling along structures called microtubules (image) that cells use for internal protein transport. But how microtubule-based movement of viral components contributes to induction of the immune response has been unknown. GEF-H1 is known to bind to microtubules, and previous research indicated that it has a role in immune recognition of bacteria. A series of experiments by Dr.